Major and Minor Scales

A diatonic major scale is a series of eight notes played in a progression starting from a tonic to the upper tonic. In a diatonic major scale, the distance between the 1st & 2nd note, 2nd & 3rd note, 4th & 5th note, 5th & 6th note, and 6th & 7th note is a tone, while the distance between the 3rd & 4th note, and 7th & 8th note is a semitone. Hence a diatonic major scale follows this pattern; TT ST TTT ST (i.e. Tone, Tone, semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, semitone). There are two ways to write a diatonic scale on the stave:
With a key signature
Without a key signature
With a key signature you establish the accidentals at the start of the stave. Without a key signature you define each accidental as it is played.
The diatonic scales are matched to their key signatures below.

There are two types of diatonic minor scales; they are:
Diatonic harmonic minor scale
Diatonic melodic minor scale
The melodic minor scale would be explained in the next grade.
In constructing the harmonic minor scale, follow the following steps:
Draw the stave
Insert the clef
Look for the relative major of that minor key (This is gotten by counting three semitones from that minor key).
Insert the key signature of that relative major (if you’re using key signature. If not, go on to the next step).
Construct the notes in the stave
Raise the 7th note with a sharp sign. (note that this is compulsory otherwise it wouldn’t be harmonic minor scale again)
Fix your slurs where appropriate
Close the stave with a double bar line